This study evaluates the seismic capacity of school buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Turkey, considering non-linear behavior of reinforced concrete components. Capacity curves of the investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with the recently published Turkish Earthquake Code (2007) that has similarities with FEMA-356 guidelines. Based on capacity curves of school buildings, it was found that the effect of material quality and detailing on seismic capacity is especially apparent for buildings with no or a limited number of shear walls. Buildings with a certain number of shear walls are less affected by low material quality and detailing, emphasizing the importance of shear walls, especially in countries where construction with poor detailing is a common problem. The outcome of the study indicates that the existing school buildings constructed per the pre-modern code far from satisfying the expected performance objectives of the recent code requirements, suggesting that urgent planning and response need to be put in action.